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Occurrence: Iron is a transition metal. Iron is the fourth place in geological elements. Iron in nature is not found in the urinary tract. It is abundant in green vegetables. It is also present in human blood hemoglobin.

Extraction of iron: In the extraction of iron the blast furnace is used. Iron extract is mainly done with red haematite ore. Magnetite is the magnetic ore of iron.

Iron varieties: There are mainly three varieties of iron-

Cast Iron: The amount of carbon in it is relatively high (2.5%). That is why it is harsh and brittle. It contains phosphorus (P), silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn) etc. in the form of impurities. This is the lowest level of iron. There are also two types – white cast iron and brown cast iron. Most of the amount of carbon in white cast iron remains in the joint stage, while the majority of carbon in the cast iron is distributed in the whole body as the microscopic crystals of the graphite.
Wrought Iron: It is obtained from cast iron. It is relatively pure iron. It is fibrous and tensile. So she can make sheets and wires. It contains the lowest carbon content (0.12 – 0.25%).
Steel: It is an alloy of iron and carbon. The amount of carbon in it is less than pig iron (0.25 to 1.5%). It is of four types-
(a) Mild steel: The amount of carbon in it is 0.1%. It is malignant and tensile. This makes sheets and wires.

(b) Middle steel: Carbon volume is 0.5% in it. It is relatively harsh. It is used in the construction of rail lines, bridges, ships etc.

(c) Hard Steel: The amount of carbon in it is about 1.5%. This creates tools.

(d) Alloy steel: It contains stainless steel, chrome steel, manganese steel, tungsten steel, nickel steel etc. Iron and carbon remain in ordinary iron steel. If any other metal (Cr, Mn, Ni) is added to it, then it is called Alloy steel. Its best example is stainless steel. The impact of air, water etc. on stainless steel does not lead to war.


Steel alloys

Stainless Steel: It contains 15% chromium. It is tough, and it does not even have war. It is used in making utensils, blades, valves etc.
Manganese steel: It contains 6 to 15% manganese with iron. It is very harsh and less wearable. This makes railroad tracks, switches and cutting machines.
Nickel Steel: It contains 3 to 4% Nickel. It is rigid and flexible, and does not seem to war. This makes parts of axle, electric wire, airplane and motor made.
Invar: In this the nickel is 36%. There is no merit in this. This allows the pendulum rods and scales of the clock to be made.
Tungsten Steel: Tungsten (W) contains 10 to 20% in it. It is very hard and strong. This makes spring and magnet, cutting tools and fast moving tools.
Chrome Venadium Steel: Chromium contains 0.1 to 1%, and vanadium 0.15 to 0.5%. It has the power to bear more weight. This creates bearings, gears and axles.
Chrome steel: Chromium has 5% in it. It is very harsh. From this, safevaults, ball-bearings, and stone-crushing machines are made.
Physical properties of iron: Pure iron is white, soft and scaly metal. Its melting point is 1533 ° C, boiling 2450 ° C and density of 7.86. It is fibrous and tensile. It has magnetic properties.

Chemical properties of iron: It does not respond to dry air on ordinary heat. When exposed to the humid air, it is rampant. There is no reaction with pure iron of pure water, but in ordinary water there is war. When flowing water is released on red-hot iron, ferrous apricot oxide and hydrogen gas are formed. It produces sulphide when heated with halalone and heated with sulfur. It does not react with bases. This makes the ferrus chloride and hydrogen gas reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid. This dilute reacts with sulfuric acid to ferrous sulfate and hydrogen gas. It produces ferrous and ferric sulphate and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas, reacting with hot and concentrated sulfuric acid. It produces ferrous nitrate and ammonium nitrate by reacting to cold and dilute nitric acid. It produces ferric nitrate and nitric oxide gas by reacting with hot and dilute nitric acid. It mixes ferric nitrate and nitrogen peroxide gas with concentrate nitric acid.

Passivity of Iron: There is no reaction when inserting a piece of iron into a highly concentrated nitric acid. Idle of iron when ingested in acid

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