Occurrence: Calcium is not found in the free state. But in the form of compounds such as carbonate, sulphate, phosphate, fluoride, silicate, it is widely found in nature. Calcium compounds present in the layer of Earth in 3.5% volume. Calcium is the main ingredient of bones, egg shells and shellfish (animal of Molška community). Calcium is the most abundant element found in Milk.
Extraction of calcium: Extraction of calcium metal is done with the electrolysis of liquid calcium chloride and calcium fluoride mixtures. Calcium fluoride makes calcium chloride electrolytes.
Physical Properties of Calcium: Calcium is a silver metal like silver. Soft but harder than lead than other normal metals. Its melting point is 851 ° C, boiling point of 1439 ° C and relative density of 1.55. It is flexible and tensile. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
Chemical properties of calcium: It produces hydrogen gas by reacting to acids. It decomposes water and produces hydrogen gas. It does not react with bases. On the heating of it with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, carbon, phosphorus, chlorine, bromine etc., non-metals are compounds, respectively, hydride, oxide, nitride, sulphide, cabide, phosphide, chloride, bromide etc.
Uses of calcium: (i) To remove water present in microfilm in alcohol, (ii) Removing nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen etc. in the microfilm in the extraction of metals.
Calcium oxide: Calcium oxide is called Quick Lime. This is a bright, porous solid. This is a fragile substance. It responds rapidly with water and results in calcium hydroxide. It is used as dry maker, in the form of gase in construction works, lime light and in the construction of many chemicals.
Calcium Hydroxide: Calcium Hydroxide is called extinguished lime. Dissolve lime is obtained for bud lime reaction. It is a bright powder, which is very less soluble in water. Bleaching powder is obtained when the chlorine gas is flowing over the dry lime. It is used in purifying coal gas, making glass, bleaching powder, caustic soda, slurry, cement, etc. and whitening houses.
Calcium Chloride: Calcium chloride is found in small amounts of seawater. It is a colorless, crystalline solid substance, in which six molecules of water in one molecule are present in the form of crystallization water. It is soluble in water and alcohol. It is deliquescent. Calcium chloride is used as a hydrogenated or dehydrating agent. It is also used in the ice mixture.
Bleaching Powder: It is oxycleloride of calcium. Bleach bleaching on industrial scale is produced by the Hasenclever’s Process. It is made by converting chlorine gas into solid-lime lime. It is white powder, which causes smell like chlorine. This is a very temporary compound. It is used in bleaching of paper and clothing. It is also used as a disinfectant. Therefore it is also used to make the water non-transitional.
Gypsum: Calcium sulphate (CaSO4.2H2O) is called gypsum. It is a white crystalline solid substance. In one of its molecules, two molecules of water live in the form of crystallization. When heated to 120 ° C it turns into Plaster of Paris. Gypsum is used in making Paris Plaster and ammonium sulfate compost.
Plaster of Paris: Semicircular calcium sulphate is commonly called as Paris plaster. This is a white powder. It combines with water intensely and the reaction results in heating. Paris Plaster is used as a bandage in surgical operation. Statues of idols and statues are made from Paris Plaster.
Superphosphate of Lime: A mixture of mono-calcium hydrogen phosphate and sulphate is called suffophosphate. It is made from phosphorite and animal bones. It is soluble in water. Therefore, it is easy to absorb the plant. Because of this, it is a good fertilizer.
Calcium Carbide: This is a gray solid substance. Calcium sineamide is formed when it is heated to 1200 ° C in the presence of nitrogen gas. Acetylene gas is generated from the reaction of water on the calcium carbide.
Nitrolim: Calcium sinemide is called nitrolim. It is used as compost.
Hydrolith: Calcium hydride is called hydrolith. Calcium hydride or hydrolith is formed when heated with calcium metal hydrogen.
Calcium Carbonate: It is found in abundance in the form of lime stone, marble, cranny etc in nature. It is also found in the form of dolomite with magnesium carbonate. This is a bright solid substance. It is insoluble in water. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is used to make dental mung powder, powder and paste. It’s fine on the walls